Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. Sapeur Koko Lingwala poses atop a grave in the cemetery in the Gombe neighbourhood of Kinshasa on February 10 to commemorate the anniversary of the death of Stervos Niarcos, who died 26 years ago in Paris and is revered as the founder of modern sapeurism, the Society of Tastemakers and Elegant People (or Société des Ambianceurs et des Personnes Élégantes in the original French, or SAPE for short). © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac

Congo’s Sapeurs Revisit Their Roots

Kinshasa, March 26, 2021
Reading time: 8 min

No longer a fringe subculture devoted to showing off their flamboyant fashions to admiring local crowds, the Sapeurs of Brazzaville and Kinshasa—the neighboring capitals of Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo—have for years enjoyed the kind of international spotlight their style demands.

Sapeurs and their dapper outfits have featured in a slick ad campaign for Guinness and a book by the late Daniele Tamagni while their looks have been replicated on the runways of Paris in suits designed by Paul Smith.

Their distinctly Congolese garments and trademark gestures were even transposed—somewhat oddly—to South Africa for a music video by Beyoncé’s sister Solange Knowles.

But each year, on February 10, Sapeurs in Kinshasa return to their origins. On the official Day of the Sape, they gather in all their finery at a cemetery in city’s Gombe neighborhood to pay tribute at the grave of Stervos Niarcos, often considered the official founder of modern sapeurism. Also known as “the Pope,” Niarcos died in Paris in 1995.

Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. Gael Basaula, who goes by the name “Nyarukos ba Forme”, poses atop a grave in the cemetery in the Gombe neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. Gael Basaula, who goes by the name “Nyarukos ba Forme”, poses atop a grave in the cemetery in the Gombe neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A group of sapeurs gather in the cemetery in the Gombe neighbourhood on February 10 to pay homage on the anniversary of the death of Stervos Niarcos © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A group of sapeurs gather in the cemetery in the Gombe neighbourhood on February 10 to pay homage on the anniversary of the death of Stervos Niarcos © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A group of sapeurs gather in the cemetery in the Gombe neighbourhood on February 10 to pay homage on the anniversary of the death of Stervos Niarcos © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A group of sapeurs gather in the cemetery in the Gombe neighbourhood on February 10 to pay homage on the anniversary of the death of Stervos Niarcos © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac

Last month, sapeurs congregated at Niarcos’ grave and posed for photographs before parading through the streets of the capital to the Matonge neighborhood, home to countless lively outdoor bars blasting music into the crowded streets.

“I respect the tradition of our Pope, who asked us to always celebrate his birthday by dressing properly,” said Gael Basaula, who was born in Brazzaville and who was wearing a colored sequin jacket and dyed yellow hair. “It’s been 26 years since we came to venerate our Pope, and this is the only way to mourn, always chic, well groomed, well dressed, and well scented.”

Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood of Kinshasa.  Here, sapeur Madeso ya Bana wears a Louis Vuitton style of mask. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood. Here, sapeur Madeso ya Bana wears a Louis Vuitton style of mask. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. After gathering at the cemetery the sapeurs moved through town to visit bars in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac

Another sapeur, Koko Lingwala, wore one of his 10 trademark outfits made from raffia palm with leopard skin details on a straw top hat. A growing number of women have joined the traditionally male-dominated sapeur movement, and were among the revellers last month, with one wearing a red leather jacket, another a tan leather suit, and all of them in dark sunglasses and designer shoes.

La SAPE, Société des ambianceurs et personnes élégantes (Society of Ambiance-Makers and Elegant People), first emerged under colonial rule and grew as Congolese soldiers returning from Europe after World War II Two brought home the latest Parisian fashions. Styles evolved over the decades, with music stars such as Papa Wemba bringing Congolese fashions to the global stage.

Sapeurs and their flare exist partly to entertain, but they also consider themselves symbols of emancipation from the legacy of colonial influence, creating their own self-image of the liberated Black man. With outfits usually accessorized with hats, shoes, socks, glasses, bags, pipes, ties, suspenders, canes, umbrellas, and more, sapeurs have during the pandemic added masks as the latest piece of their fashion puzzle, reminding us that even though they remain rooted in tradition, sapeurism is also about the evolution of personal style.

Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A growing number of women have joined the sapeur movement and show off their style here in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A growing number of women have joined the sapeur movement and show off their style here in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A growing number of women have joined the sapeur movement and show off their style here in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A growing number of women have joined the sapeur movement and show off their style here in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A growing number of women have joined the sapeur movement and show off their style here in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A growing number of women have joined the sapeur movement and show off their style here in the Matonge neighbourhood. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. Gael Basaula © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. Gael Basaula © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A sapeur dressed in a typical Mobutu-era leopard skin hat attends the gathering in the Matonge neighbourhood of Kinshasa. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac
Kinshasa, DRC, February 2021. A sapeur dressed in a typical Mobutu-era leopard skin hat attends the gathering in the Matonge neighbourhood of Kinshasa. © Justin Makangara for Fondation Carmignac

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